Technology of Underground Coal Mining in the U.S.A. - State of the Art
Cas Bruniany
Joy Mining Machinery, Franklin, PA. U.S.A.


With 275 billion tons of recoverable coal reserves that can be mined using existing technologies, United States is ranked number one in the World. At the current rate of production, recoverable coal reserves are sufficient for 250 years. American coal mines are the most productive in the World, and their performance is still improving every year. This discussion will focus on some major technology developments that greatly contribute to the success of the American coal mining industry.


Application of the SF6 Tracer Gas in Identifying Mine Air Flows through Abandoned Workings Sealed from the Ventilation System
Piotr Buchwald & Zbigniew Jaskólski
Central Mines Rescue Stations. Bytom, Poland



Technological Advances in Underground Mining of a Stratified Copper Deposit in Poland
Jan Butra
CBPM "Cuprum" Spółka z o.o. Wrocław, Poland



Geomechanical Problems in Simultaneous Exploitation Both Open Pit and Underground at Minera Michilla, II Region Antofagsta - Chile
Alfonso R. Carvajal
Mining Department of La Serena University. Chile

Claudio G. Fernández & Jaime M. Carmona
Rock Mechanic Staff Minera Michilla S.A. Chile


In Chile, the most important copper ore deposits have been exploited under both open pit and underground methods. A number of them (Chuquicamata, El Romeral, Carmen de Andacollo, etc.) are in the final step of exploitation by any of the methods above mentioned. On the other hand, new deeper geological resources have required a shift from open pit to underground mining because stripping ratio have raised to uneconomical level, involving different mining problems. Other deposits have evolved in the opposite way, that is, from underground mining to open pit due to new shallow geological resources, which were not previously recognized for different reasons. Other deposits are exploited simultaneously by open pit and underground mining. This work presents problems related to this situation in Minera Michilla S.A. with an emphasis on geotechnical management as an important part of the mining business.



The Control of Mining Damage in China
Yu Xueyi & Zhao Binchao
Xi'an University of Science & Technology. China

ABSTRACT: This article contains an analysis of the types, scale and situation of engineering methods of control of mining damage in the coal industry of China. Furthermore, some solutions for preventing and controlling mining damage of natural resources, environment, traffic system and buildings are presented. The authors also propose a method of co-coordinating the development in coal industry and environmental protection using both mining and engineering methods of control.

KEYWORDS: resource development, mining damage, environmental protection, land reclamation



Rock Bursts - Preventive Measures Undertaken in the Polish Mines
Józef Dubiński, Władysław Konopko
Central Mining Institute. Katowice, Poland


In the Polish underground (deep) mining bump hazard occurs in about 70 per cent of collieries and in all copper mines. The term of bump hazard means a possibility of a bump occurrence as a result of unfavourable geologic and mining-technological conditions in an underground working or its vicinity. A bump itself is a dynamic phenomenon causes by a rock-mass tremor resulting in a violent damage or destruction of a working or a part of it, which caused a complete or partial loss of its functionality or safety of using it (Kidybiñski 2003). Thus a bump is a particular kind of rock-mass tremor. In hard coal mining and copper ore mining there are rock-mass tremors of seismic energy of up to 1010 J (up to 4,5 magnitude of Richter scale). The lowest energy values at which bumps were observed in collieries amounted to 5×103 J, in case of copper ore mines they were one order of energy values higher and amounted to 5×104 J. The higher the seismic energy of a rock-mass tremor the higher is the probability of bump occurrence. While at a rock-mass tremor with the seismic energy of the order of 104 J that probability amounts to circa 10-4, at the tremor energy of the order of 1010 J it approaches the value of 1,0.
Rock-mass tremors, in particular the high-energy ones, pose a specific nuisance to the inhabitants of mining regions both in the sphere of damage caused to surface objects and by arousing some psychical discomfort.
In order to restrict the number and effects of rock-mass tremors and rock bumps in the Polish mining a wide research on the causes and circumstances of their occurrence is done, and judicial, technical and organisational measures taken in this sphere bring about expected results. While in 1960-1965 above 50 bumps per year were noted in the collieries, currently - at a comparable production volume - the number of bumps occurrences decreased to several ones yearly. Preventive measures applied in the Polish collieries aimed at restricting the number and consequences of those hazardous phenomena are presented below - as briefly as the requirements towards the article demanded.



Prospects of Development of Highly Productive Coal Extraction Technologies
Volodymyr I. Bondarenko, Olexander M. Kuzmenko, Roman O. Dychkovsky
National Mining University. Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine



The Effectiveness of Support of Weak Rock with TA2 Tubular Anchors
Volodymyr I. Bondarenko, Gennadiy A. Simanovich, Irina A. Kovalevska
National Mining University. Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine

Vjacheslav V. Porotnikov
State Holding Company "Pavlogradugol". Ukraine



A Fuel-Energy System Based on Mining Preparation and Underground Burning of Coal Layers
Gennadij Gayko
The Donbass Mining and Metallurgical Institute. Alchevsk, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: In the work an analysis of underground coal conversion to energy is given. A new concept of fuel-energy system was proposed, suggesting preparation of coalfield and controlled burning of separate blocks of coal layers. Technical and economical comparison with traditional technologies was done.

KEYWORDS: Preparation works, underground burning of coal, heat-carrier, electricity



Exploitation of Technologically Generated Methane Deposits by Means of Surface Wells
Alexsandr Egorovich Vorobyov
Russian University of Peoples Friendship. Moscow, Russia

Tatyana Vladimirovna Chekushina
Research Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources, Russian Academy of Sciences. Moscow, Russia

Grigoriy Artemovich Balykhin
Ministry of Education of Russian Federation. Moscow, Russia

Alexsandr Dmitrievich Gladush
Russian University of Peoples Friendship. Moscow, Russia



Possibility of Employing Mechanical Extraction in Thin Copper-Ore Deposit Conditions
Lubomir Horoszczak
KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. O/ZG "Polkowice-Sieroszowice". Lubin, Poland

Leszek Ziętkowski
CBPM "Cuprum" Sp. z o.o., Oœrodek Badawczo-Rozwojowy. Wrocław, Poland

ABSTRACT: The exploitation of copper ore deposits having a thickness of below 1,5 m will require the use of mining machines capable of obtaining output as little diluted as possible, with production cost significantly lower than it currently is. Machines capable of mechanical excavating of relatively strong rock, in faces 1,1 m high are already known in the world. KGHM Polska MiedŸ S.A. "Polkowice-Sieroszowice" mine has undertaken exploitation tests using a mechanical miner designed for winning of copper ores.

KEYWORDS: Mechanical extraction, thin deposit, new techniques & technologies



Methane Control in Coal Mining Safety System
N.O. Kaledina
Moscow State Mining University, Department of Mine Aerology and Safety. Moscow, Russia

ABSTRACT: Methane safety in coal mines may be provided by using complex engineering methods. It is necessary to take into account all relevant factors: technological, ventilation, and dynamics of gas and coal dust. Besides, this problem must be solved taking into account the environmental issues. The aim of this work is to provide help in increasing the safety of underground coal mining with simultaneous decrease of atmosphere methane pollution by means of methane extraction and the use of an optimal ventilation system. A criterion for methane control is offered, which may be used with any control method and also takes into account the development of new technologies of methane utilization.




Technical and Economic Possibilities for Permanent Limitation of Water Inflow to Mine Workings
Roman Kuś,

G. Janik & R. Kuś PRGW Sp. jawna. Sławków, Poland

ABSTRACT: The subject of the paper is to analyse the possibilities of permanent elimination of water inflow to underground and opencast mine workings on the basis of the currently available technologies. There is a presentation of the up-to-date experience in this area on the basis of the works carried out in Poland and worldwide. Ecological and financial results of water inflow limitation to the mining workings will be demonstrated.

KEYWORDS: Hydro insulating barrier, hydro insulating solution, deposit sealing, economic calculation



Limiting Inflow of Water to Operating Shafts by Application of Permanent Hydro-Insulating Screens
Roman Kuś
G. Janik & R. Kuś PRGW Sp. jawna. Sławków, Poland

ABSTRACT: This paper presents the manner of limitation of underground water inflow to the shaft, on the example of works designed and performed in the mine "Zofiówka". It presents the principles related to the design of such works, and afterwards, the performance of the same in the conditions of continuing operation of the shaft and it touches upon the necessity of the application of the screen in loose soil.

KEYWORDS: Shafts, hydro-insulating solution, plugging



Risk of Coal Dust Explosion and its Elimination
K. Lebecki, K. Cybulski,
Central Mining Institute. Katowice, Poland

A. Szulik
State Mining Authority. Katowice, Poland

ABSTRACT: Coal dust explosion is the biggest danger for underground mines. Paper presents its causes in connection with extraction principles, exposing physical and chemical properties of coal, its flammability, amount of dust deposited in the workings. Authors conclude that existing safety rules, if met, are sufficient to ensure the high safety level. Accession of Poland to the European Union brings the necessity to adapt Polish law to meet the EU requirements and introduce such notions as risk assessment and explosive atmospheres. The basic requirements of the
EN-1127-2 standard, the basic document related to explosion hazards in underground mines, are presented.

KEYWORDS: Explosion, coal dust, risk, EN 1127-2 standard



Development Trends in Mine Hoisting and Drainage
Garry G. Litvinsky
The Donbass Mining and Metallurgical Institute. Alchevsk, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: A brief analysis of the base problems and shortcomings both of mine hoisting and drainage is given. Inappropriateness of their utilization in future mining industry is shown. As alternate version a principally new engineering solution for overcoming engineering difficulties in mine hoisting and drainage is offered. The new scientific and engineering idea is based on usage of a force volumetric hydraulic drive for transport of mineral and mine water. The new engineering system executes and unites functions of mine hoisting and drainage. Hydro-jack hoisting and drainage (HJHD) removes shortcomings of current constructions, has considerably smaller power-consumption and cost. Base design features are shown and a technological comparison of alternate versions demonstrates advantages of the new engineering system HJHD.

KEYWORDS: Mining industry, analysis, rope mine hoisting, drainage by pumps, hydro-jack hoisting and drainage (HJHD), performance characteristics



Organizational - Economic Models of Investment Activity at the State-Owned Coal Mining Enterprises of Ukraine
V.I. Logvinenko, O.Yu. Kuzmich
Donetsk regional state administration. Donetsk, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: The main results and prospects of the investment activity in the coal industry have been considered.



Equipment Selection for Mechanized Mining as a Function of Physical, Mechanical and Deformation Properties of Rock
Milenko Ljubojev
Copper Institute. Bor, Serbia & Montenegra

Mladen Stjepanovic
University of Belgrade. Serbia & Montenegra

Mirko Ivkovic
EPS JP for PEU. Resavica, Serbia & Montenegra

Savo Perendic
Director of "Lubnica" Coal Mine. Serbia & Montenegra

ABSTRACT: Physical, mechanical and deformation properties of a coal seam and accompanying rocks have an exceptional importance in selection of mining method and technology, in selection of mining equipment; the way of equipping the face and construction of underground mining facilities.
This paper presents the results of research of the influence rock-mass characteristics has on selection of equipment for mechanized mining of the floor part of the first coal seam, in specific case of "Lubnica" mine coal deposit.

KEYWORDS: Geomechanical parameters, coal, mechanized mining equipment selection



The Influence of Physical Parameters on Mechanizability of Longwall Mining of Coal
K. Oraee & R. Pourkhandani
University of Tarbiat Modarres. Tehran, Iran

ABSTRACT: Coal has always been considered to be an important source of energy and despite short-term fluctuations, its long-term total demand in the world, shows an upward trend. Longwalling remains the most attractive method of winning coal, mainly due to the availability of efficient machinery. In order to produce coal economically, optimal adoption and efficient utilization of mechanization is of utmost importance.
In this paper, the importance of coal is first briefly discussed and it is then argued that the most important parameters influencing the viability of utilization of mechanized mining (or in short "mechanizability") of coal seams are: roof and floor rock quality, seam thickness and dip.
A distinct mathematical model is introduced that quantifies the effect of each parameter on mechanizability of coal seams. Combination of these component models by appropriate methods produces a comprehensive model that measures the mechanizability of coal seams in longwall mining.
These component models could serve as an important tool for the mine design engineer in deciding the level of mechanization to be adopted and hence the most appropriate machinery to be utilized, in order to attain economy of production.



Application of IntelliMineŽ for Underground Mine Management
Jacek Paraszczak
Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Université Laval.
Quebec City, Canada

ABSTRACT: Mining cost depends to a significant degree on equipment availability and utilization. Both may be substantially improved through better management of the equipment fleet. An introduction of mine management systems in open-pit mining has been in a focus of attention for some time, but until recently, no such solutions were available for underground mines. This has changed however with an introduction of the underground version of IntelliMineŽ, a real-time mine management system developed by the American company Modular Mining Systems International (MMSI). This paper overviews its objectives and principles. System components and utilities are described in detail. The paper presents also some information on several applications in different mines all over the world, including an input from end-users. The paper concludes with a critical evaluation of system advantages and its current status.



The Attempt to Apply Radar Interferometry InSAR in the Monitoring of the Impact of the Ore Deposit Exploitation in LGOM (Lubin Copper Mining Area)
Edward Popiołek
AGH - University of Science and Technology, WGGiIŚ. Kraków, Poland

Cezary Bachowski
KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. Lubin, Poland

Artur Krawczyk, Paweł Sopata
AGH - University of Science and Technology, WGGiIŚ. Kraków, Poland

ABSTRACT: In the paper the possibilities of using satellite radar scanning of the area with InSAR method in the determination of area subsidence caused by underground mining. It was proved that it is possible to determine temporary subsidence of the area, zones of present threat to the buildings as well as to verify the forecasts for the deformation of the surface of the area. This way there are the possibilities of the monitoring of subsidence without the need for establishing a surveying grid.

KEYWORDS: Radar interferometry, satellites, studies on area deformation, information systems



New Technologies of Coal Bed Methane Preliminary Recovery
S.V. Slastounov
Chair Engineering Protection of the Environment, Moscow State Mining University, Russia



Methane as a Source of Energy in an Air-Conditioning System in "Pniowek" Coal Mine
Nikodem Szlązak
AGH - University of Science and Technology. Cracow, Poland

Andrzej Tor, Antoni Jakubów, Kazimierz Gatnar
Jastrzębie Coal Company. Jastrzębie Zdroj, Poland

ABSTRACT: The initial part of the paper characterises "Pniowek" Coal Mine as far as methane and temperature hazards, which make mining operations more difficult, are concerned. Methane as a source of hazard as well as precious fuel to be used in energy-generating systems is characterised. Central air-conditioning system in "Pniowek" Coal Mine, in which chillers of 5 MWch combined power are driven by two TBG632 V16 gas engines powered by methane coming from drainage, is presented in this paper. The obtained effects of the system and the work done up till now are estimated on the basis of the data for 2000-2002. The estimation of the energy-generating system includes: the way of building in into mining electricity and heat systems, cost of electricity, heat and chill production and the method of their utilisation, level of power demand and energy effectiveness both of the whole system and of their underground and surface parts.
This work also emphasises economic effect of chill production from methane drained from coal deposits, simultaneously estimating the influence of the project on overcoming temperature hazard in headings down to level 1000 m. In the conclusion, high effectiveness of usage of methane drained from coal deposits in systems comprising air-conditioning system, their high power effectiveness, utilisation of this energy source and reduction in expenditure on methane drainage thanks to profits from gas sales are discussed. Table 2 presents methane (CH4) utilisation and value of production obtained in combined electricity - cooling system and table 3 the level in which production obtained in an electricity - cooling system provided for the needs of the mine.

KEYWORDS: Methane, temperature hazard, modern technology, air-conditioning of mines, central cooling system, combined energy-cooling system




Experience and Practical Aspects of Utilizing a Shrinkage Method of Extraction at "Kazimierz-Juliusz" Coal Mine in Sosnowiec
Stanisław Gajos
Katowice Coal Holding S.A. Katowice, Poland

Marek Urbaś, Tadeusz Lamot
KWK "Kazimierz-Juliusz" Sp. z o.o. Sosnowiec, Poland

ABSTRACT: In the paper the authors present experience gathered during exploitation of the thick and steeply dipping 510 coal seam by means of a shrinkage method using exploitation galleries for seam development at "Kazimierz-Juliusz" coal mine (KWK "Kazimierz-Juliusz" Sp. z o.o.) in Sosnowiec. This particular method of mining thick and steep-dipping seams was proposed and developed by a team of engineers from the Mine and scientists from AGH - University of Science and Technology in Krakow. The method was employed to mine this part of the 510 seam located within the boundaries of "Kazimierz-Juliusz" mine, whose thickness exceeded 20 metres and which occurred at a dip of 35 to 45 degrees. The notes presented here refer to this experience. The paper covers the topics of influence of the described mining system on neighbouring excavations as well as on the rock-mass in the area of exploitation, taking into account mining hazards involved. It presents the obtained up-to-date technical and economic parameters characterising the system.

KEYWORDS: Exploitation system, shrinkage, thick seam, steeply dipping seam




Underground Geotechnology of Exploitation of Polymetallic Ores (Based on the Example of North Caucasian Region Deposits)
Alexsandr Egorovich Vorobyov, K.G. Karginov
Russian University of Peoples Friendship. Moscow, Russia

Tatyana Vladimirovna Chekushina
Research Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources,
Russian Academy of Sciences. Moscow, Russia

ABSTRACT: The paper describes development of scientific - methodical bases of perfecting the methods of underground mining of polymetals by leaching ensuring increase of efficiency of development of poor ores by optimization of technological parameters.
The basic idea - effective development of the not in details explored reserves of poor polymetal ores on the basis of flexible designing of systems of underground leaching.




Problems and Prospects of Development of the Coal Mining Enterprises in the Donetsk Region
A.R. Vovchenko, V.G. Grinyov
The Regional state administration. Donetsk, Ukraine

D.M. Zhitlyonok
State enterprise "Dzerzhinskugol". Donetsk, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: The crisis in the coal mining industry of Ukraine will increase unless the reforms continue to be implemented with the aim of its privatisation. The problems of the coal mining industry are discussed in the context of Ukraine joining WTO and integration into EU.

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