Methods of Extraction of Thin and Rather Thin Coal Seams*

in the Works of the Scientists of the Underground Mining Faculty (National Mining University)

Volodymyr Bondarenko, Roman Dychkovskiy

National Mining University, Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: The analyses of coal reserves in Ukraine are shown. The technological parameters of traditional mining are considered for given geological conditions. Features of mining technologies of augering, plowing, conveyor plowing, scraper plowing, rope saw extraction are considered. Tech-nologies of the complex mechanized mining with cutter loaders in longwall faces are given.

*Note: The Ukrainian coal seam thickness classification is as follows:

– < 0,7 m – very low coal,

– 0,7–1,2 m – low coal,

– 1,2–3,5 m – average coal,

– > 3,5 m – high coal.

KEYWORDS: Mechanized set, longwall, shortwall, plowing, conveyor plowing, scraper plowing, rope saw mining, augering, condition of rock, preparatory workings, parameters of mining system



Mining of Adjacent Coal Seams in the Mines of Western Donbass

Volodymyr Buzylo, Tatiana Morozova, Vitaliy Vasilev, Olexandr Koshka

National Mining University. Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine



Coal Mine of 21st Century:

In-Situ Producer of Energy, Fuels and Chemicals

Józef Dubiński, Jan Rogut, Krystyna Czaplicka, Aleksandra Tokarz

Główny Instytut Gornictwa. Katowice, Poland

ABSTRACT: This discussion paper presents some innovative, balanced visions and scenarios of new types of a coal mine development. Such a novel coal mine as an in-situ producer of energy, liquid fuels and chemicals could satisfy the increasing needs of European and Polish economy at the time of expensive energy. The vision outlines a response of coal mining research community to the requirements of energy and chemical industries in order to continue a secure supply of energy carriers, fuels and chemicals at the post “peak oil” era. The paper puts under discussion the simila-rities and differences in thermal and chemical coal conversion processes carried out in-situ (under-ground conversion of coal) and out of the coal bed (Energyplex). The paper discusses selected nee-ds for R&D activities aimed at achieving some critical, scientific and technical mass and know-how necessary for the on time delivery of innovative technology solutions for sustainable coal mi-ning industries. The paper also accentuates the need for elaborating extended LCA techniques for the economic and environmental evaluation of different options of the future coal mine structure and functions. The text draws out several recommendations for the long-term coal conversion tech-nology strategies in line with Strategic Research and Strategic Deployment Agendas (SRA, SDA) of Zero Emission Fossil Fuel Power Plant, Hydrogen & Fuel Cell, Green Chemistry and similar European Technology Platforms as well as the European Sustainable Mining and Mineral Extrac-tion Technology Platform.



Fly Ash Suspension with CO2 as a New Method

of Gob Fire Prevention in Coalmines

Wacław Dziurzyński

Strata Mechanics Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Krakow, Poland

Radosław Pomykała

AGH – University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Mining and Geoengineering.

Krakow, Poland. e-mail:

ABSTRACT: The new method of spontaneous gob fire prevention in underground coalmine was described in the paper. It is the fly ash suspension together with carbon dioxide application. The basic aim of the application was to limit fire hazard (spontaneous heating processes elimination) by decreasing the airflow through the gob (suspensions) and inertization of the gob atmosphere (car-bon dioxide).

In order to evaluate the efficiency of using the new prevention method, in-situ tests have been conducted during the normal coal exploitation of a longwall system. The second part of the tests concerned the evaluation of the gob inertization influence on the carbon dioxide concentration in the outlet stream of air. The results of the tests were presented.

KEYWORDS: Underground coal mining, spontaneous heating and fire, fire prevention, inertiza-tion, fly ash suspension



Underground Coal Mining in Russia

at the Beginning of the 21st Century and its Prospects

V.G. Gridin

“Siberian Business Council” Holding Company

V.I. Efimov

ООО “ФПГ Prokopevskurol”

V.A. Kharchenko

I.A. Stoyaniva

Department of “Economics of Nature Management” MSMU

ABSTRACT: Coal is a fuel, which is used by all the leading countries in the world to strengthen their national power systems. Moreover, the price for coal is usually significantly lower than those of gas and petroleum products. That is why it is economically more feasible to use coal rather than other types of fuel. It is not accidental that the share of coal in power generation in the USA, a coun-try with the most strict market economy, is equal to 52%, in Germany, a country with a socially oriented market economy – 54%, in China – a country with a transition economy – 72%.



Establishing Rational Level of Coal Production

V.G. Grinyov, O.Yu. Kuzmich

The Regional State Administration. Donetsk, Ukraine

D.M. Zhitlyonok

State Enterprise “Dzerzhinskugol”. Donetsk, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: This article presents an analysis of tendencies in the state policy towards the coal mining industry against the background of complicated processes of transition to the market eco-nomy in this particular sector of industry; also the structure of coal production at Donetsk coal mi-ning enterprises is given.

The article describes the main problems of the Ukrainian coal mining industry, the ways of sol-ving these problems and to improve financial and economic condition of coal producing enterprises.



Potential for Improvement of Reliability and Maintenance

in Mining Operations Based on Nuclear Industry Know-How

and Experience

D. Komljenovic

Hydro-Québec. Gentilly, PQ, Canada

J. Paraszczak

Dept. of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Université Laval.

Quebec City, PQ, Canada

V. Kecojevic

College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, Pennsylvania State University. University Park, PA, USA

ABSTRACT: This paper discusses possibilities concerning a transfer of know-how and technology transfer in the field of reliability and maintenance from the nuclear industry to mining. Both in-dustries face important challenges with regard to safety, productivity and environment. The nuclear industry has achieved significant levels of productivity while remaining safe through a systematic approach using accumulated knowledge and developing industry tailored Reliability and Maintenan-ce Processes. Some examples of their potential application in mining have been given. The paper presents also some indications and suggestions concerning further research work in this field.



Minimizing Сoal Losses When Extracting Thin Coal Seams

with the Use of Auger Mining Technologies

Iryna Kovalevska

National Mining University. Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: The paper presents the mining experience obtained in working in twice undermined coal seam by auger technology. The parameters of the suggested technology are determined by the dividing coal pillars according to the functional assignment. The results of scientific and practical work done at “Dobropolska” mine are given.

KEYWORDS: Auger mining, losses of coal, basic & crosshole pillars, arch of natural balance



Multiple Data Collection System in CO2 Injection Investigation

in Upper Silesian Deep Coal Seams

Paweł Krzystolik, Jacek Skiba, Bartłomiej Jura

Central Mining Institute of Katowice. Poland

ABSTRACT: The parameters, being subject of measurement during the CO2 sequestration into the Upper Silesian coal seams under the RECOPOL project can be divided into three groups: technolo-gical, safety and environmental-ones. The technological parameters mainly refer to the constant monitoring of the pressures inside the CO2 storage tanks, at the inlet and outlet of the pump skid, at the injection well wellhead, periodically inside the well (at different depths – by the pressure gau-ges). Apart from above also temperature at the wellhead and the flow of CO2 are being constantly measured. As far as safety parameters are concerned they can be divided into two groups again: the surface and the underground-ones. The underground parameters are very important as they refer to the constant monitoring of CO2 content in underground workings of the neighbourhood coal mine “Silesia”. The surface safety parameters measurement is focused on periodical measurement of MS-4 well gas content, its concentration and flow, measurement of water level in the a.m. well, its PH and conductivity.

The last but also of great significance is the measurement of environmental parameters. In RE-COPOL project case this is constant measurement of CO2 content in the five surface wells (at the depth of 2 meters from the ground surface). These measurements aim is to provide us with the information whether there is any breakthrough of CO2 from the injected coal seams to the ground surface. Only complex analysis of all above-mentioned parameters can give full understanding of CO2 sequestration phenomena and can drive through the scale of the problems, which have to be faced.



Application of New Technologies in the Process

of Closing Donbass Mines

Olexandr Kuzmenko

National Mining University. Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: The paper motivates theoretically and experimentally the most efficient techno-logical parameters of closure of inclined mining in different mining engineering conditions. New technological solutions of complex combination of backfilling and grouting of inclined mining are designed on the grounds of researches. New technologies are successfully introduced on more than 50 sites of the closing Donbass mines.

KEYWORDS: New technologies in mine closure, backfill, ash backfill material, clay-cement fill



Calculation Algorithm of Rock-mass Stress Conditions

During the Construction, Maintenance and Protection

of Preparatory Workings as a Function

of the Technological Parameters of Coal Seam Extraction Systems

Olexandr Kuzmenko, Olexandr Savostyanov

National Mining University. Ukraine

ABSTRACT: The paper presents an algorithm for determining stress and strain condition of rock during the construction, support and maintenance of development workings.

KEYWORDS: Algorithm, stress and strain condition of rock, development workings, parameters of mining system



Satellite Remote Sensing as Means to Assess Primary Impact

of Open-Pit Mining Development

R. Latifovic

Natural Resources Canada/Earth Sciences Sector. Ottawa, ON, Canada

K. Fytas & J. Paraszczak

Dept. of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Université Laval.

Québec City, PQ, Canada

ABSTRACT: Assessment of the possible impact of existing and future mining projects located in remote areas may be difficult and costly. This may have an adverse effect on the process of issuing mine permits and development of new mines. A remote sensing based land cover change assess-ment methodology presented in this paper is a promising avenue to render this process more mea-ningful, precise and affordable. It has been applied to a case study of the Oil Sands Mining De-velopment in the north-east of Canadian province of Alberta. So-called Athabasca Oil Sands Re-gion (AOSR) is a place of unprecedented growth of open-pit mining operations. This study was focused on the primary impact onto the landscape and vegetation, considered as all surface distur-bances resulting from exploration, mining development, urban development and logging. This im-pact was assessed using an information extraction method applied to two LANDSAT scenes. The analysis based on derived land cover maps shows a decrease of natural vegetation in the study area (715,094 ha) for 2001 approximately 8.64% relative to 1992. It has been demonstrated that the methodology presented here provides reliable results and is fully applicable for the assessment of the environmental impact of huge-scale mining operations.



Speed of Roof Rock Separation and a Type of Working’s Support

Tadeusz Majcherczyk, Piotr Małkowski, Zbigniew Niedbalski

AGH – University of Science and Technology, Cracow. Poland

ABSTRACT: The paper presents measurement results of speed of roof rock separation for three selected headings protected with various types of support, i.e. individual roof bolting, combined system of prop support and roof bolting, and prop support. The measurements were carried out for a period of dozen to several dozens of months. Separations were recorded with the use of low and high multilevel telltales as well as extensometers. Speed of separations was determined in relation to the time of measurement. Recording separations for a long period of time allowed for an esti-mation of stability of the analysed workings as well as for relating movement of roof layers to va-rious types of support applied in their construction.



Development of Strategy for Revival

of Regional Coal-Mining Companies

A.A. Malysheva

Industrial-Ecological Laboratory, The Centre for Monitoring the Socio-Ecological Consequences of Closing the Eastern Donbass Coal Mines Ltd



A Geophysical Model for the Analysis of Seismic Emissions

in the Area of Rock Beam Splitting Caused by Mining Operations

Henryk Marcak

AGH – University of Mining and Metallurgy, Institute of Geophysics. Kraków, Poland

ABSTRACT: In Poland the rock-burst risk in underground mines is an important issue in the mi-ning industry. The predictive rock-burst information is extracted from different kind of information based on measurements. One of them is seismic data, but the predictive information included in it is limited, due to small number of strong seismic shocks and the chaotic development of rock de-struction before the strong seismic events occur. In the paper, a geomechanical model of rock de-struction prior strong seismic shocks is proposed. It can help in an optimal organization of the mea-surement system and its interpretation for better assessment of the seismic risk in underground mines.



Monitoring of Natural Hazards

in the Underground Hard Coal Mines

Władysław Mironowicz, Stanisław Wasilewski

Research and Development Centre for Electrical Engineering and Automation in Mining EMAG. Katowice, Poland

ABSTRACT: The natural hazards especially methane, fire and rock-bump hazards make the most serious danger for present-day mines and have a crucial effect on miners’ safety and continuity of mining operations. Degree of these hazards increases with concentration of coal faces and use of high-duty mining methods for seams lying deeper and deeper. The interaction of natural hazards at seams liable to rock-bumps may lead to intensity both fire and spontaneous methane emission. The methane continuous monitoring systems in the range of 0100% CH4 including automatic power-off as well as the early fire detection systems based on measurements of CO, CO2, O2 and smoke are nowadays a standard. The improvement in efficiency of mine rescue operations can be achie-ved by quick reaction to the hazards. The issue concerns e.g. the mines in which the associated na-tural hazards may occur and where the bumps of definite energy requires an immediate power-off not only in the hazardous areas but also at ways of air flow and propagation of methane disturban-ces. The up-to-date rock-bump hazards monitoring systems use seismoacoustic and micro-seismo-logic methods characterized by high dynamics of signals to be registered. Work safety of miners in the underground areas means also the systems of their localization and attendance in mine work-ings as well as the warning systems in case of hazards e.g. fire or gas and smoke propagation. The miners’ localization systems and load-speaking and alarm broadcasting communication systems should be therefore disseminated to support a mine operator to remove the staff from hazardous areas. Detection of the state of emergency requiring mine rescue operations allows a mine operator to activate the underground signalling devices and banners showing safe escape routes.



Areas of Sustainable Development in of Mine Closure Process

Jan Palarski

Technical University of Silesia. Gliwice, Poland

ABSTRACT: Mining industry is the important contributor to the Polish economy. The mineral sec-tor creates many opportunities including: jobs, development of infrastructure and services in mi-ning regions, transfer of technology and research results. However, the operational live of mines is finite. Due to the exhaustion of reserves and high operational costs, mines need to be closed.

This paper considers many aspects of mine closure policy process. Mine closure plans should include site closure problems as well as economic, environmental, social and employee matters. The paper provides information on technical, social, ecological and economic aspects of mine clo-sure in Poland. Some of these are related to physical stability of rock mass, water management and chemical stability, tailings and waste disposal facilities, post closure land use and environmental monitoring.

KEYWORDS: Sustainable development, mine closure, surface damages, filling and grouting process



The Use of Pre-stressed Tendons

in the Polish Coal Mining Industry

Zbigniew Rak, Jerzy Stasica, Michał Stopyra

AGH – University of Science and Technology, Cracow. Poland

ABSTRACT: The paper outlines the practice of roof support with the use of long string wire cable-bolts in Polish coal mines from its beginning till now. Shown are the results of the observations conducted to determine the interaction between the cables and the rockmass in various geological and mining conditions. The documented cases of cablebolt support installation and performance monitoring have been done on such mines as: “Bogdanka”, “Sobieski Jaworzno III”, “Murcki”, “Wieczorek”, “Bielszowice”, “Piast”. The authors also present the results of laboratory research conducted at a suitably prepared test stand as well as new cable construction designs together with their technical characteristics. Further on described are the most effective methods to install cable-bolts in various rocks, characterised by diverse structural and strength properties.

KEYWORDS: Pre-stressed tendons, coal mining, mine tunnels, support reinforcement



Geomechanics: History, Modern State

and Prospects of Development

Olexandr Shashenko

National Mining University. Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine

Tadeusz Majcherczyk

AGH – University of Science and Technology. Cracow, Poland

ABSTRACT: The history and the main steps of development of geomechanics is considered. The modern state of modelling of the mechanical processes taking place in rock mass is given.

KEYWORDS: Geomechanics, mathematical modeling, mechanical processes, longwall method, rope saw mining, gas-dynamics manifestation



A New Method for Assessing the Status

of Sealed-off Coal Mine Fires

Yuan Shujie

Anhui University of Science and Technology. Huainan, Anhui, China

Nikodem Szlązak, Dariusz Obracaj

AGH – University of Science and Technology. Cracow, Poland

Si Chunfeng

Wanbei Coal – Electricity Company. Suzhou, Anhui, China

ABSTRACT: The paper presents a method to assess the status of sealed-off underground coal mine fires. The assessment is based on the analysis of gas samples taken from the fire areas. Considering the mining an geological factors influencing the results, the authors suggested their own method of analysing and assessing the condition of a sealed-off fire with the use of so-called “fire character-ristic”, which graphically describes the variations of five fire gas components – oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons – in time. An analysis of the fire gas compo-nents’ tendencies and their correlations allows drawing proper conclusions about the fire status. In order to mark fire indicators’ tendencies in time the authors applied the time series analysis. The cases studied confirmed that the suggested method is beneficial for analysing and assessing the sta-tes of fires located in sealed-off areas.

KEYWORDS: Coal mines, mine fires, spontaneous combustion, sealed-off fire areas, fire status assessment, fire indicators



Contribution to the Prediction of Ground Surface Movements Caused by a Rising Water Level in a Flooded Mine

Anton Sroka

Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg. Freiberg, Germany 

ABSTRACT: Survey measurements indicate that ceasing to pump mine water out of closed coal mines results in surface heave. In the practice of the German mine surveying the mathematical basis for the projection of such ground movements are the formulae derived by Pöttgens (1985) and Fenk (2000).

The paper critically evaluates these methods and proposes modifications from the rock enginee-ring and the science of mining damages points of view.



Problems of Underground Ore Mining at Great Depths

in Kryvyi Rih Basin

Yuriy Vilkul, Yuriy Kaplenko, Mykola Stupnik, Victor Sydorenko

Kryvyi Rih Technical University, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: The paper presents an analysis of mining methods applied at Kryvyi Rih Iron Ore Complex. Considers the technical and economic indicators of sublevel caving. Offers directions for further development of the technology of ore mining at great depths. Corresponding conclusions are presented.

KEYWORDS: Underground ore mining, naturally rich ores, technical and economic indicators, mining ratio – useful mineral


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